How do people become aware of self and the social world? Shelley Duval and Robert Wicklund in 1972 proposed that people can be aware of self at any point in one of two ways, either directing awareness through self as subject, or directing awareness at self as object. This idea was generalized by Wegner and Giuliano (1980) in an analysis of social awareness. According to this analysis, people can become aware of any social entity either as a perspective that guides awareness, or as a target on which awareness can focus. People can become aware through self, others, or groups, then, and can become aware of self, others, or groups as well. These various forms of social awareness make it possible to represent not only self awareness, but such phenomena as empathy, self-presentation, and group identification.